Chapter 1: Higher Education System
Section 1.2: Description of Higher Education System
In light of the need of economic and social development, the State formulates plans for the development of higher education.
The State encourages all sectors of society, including enterprises, institutions, public organizations or groups as well as individual citizens, to run higher education institutions in accordance with law.
HEIs are geared to the needs of society, enjoy autonomy in providing education to the general public and practice democratic management in accordance with law.
Higher education in China is divided into short-cycle course education (zhuanke, offering non-degree programmes), undergraduate education (benke, offering programmes leading to the bachelor’s degrees) and postgraduate education (offering programmes leading the master’s and doctor’s degrees).
China adopts three-hierarchy degree system, namely the bachelor’s, master’s and doctor’s degrees.
Section 1.3: Number of Higher Education Institutions
|1. Institutions providing postgraduate programs||827|
|2. Regular HEIs||2738|
|3. Adult HEIs||265|
|4. Other non-government HEIs||788|
Section 1.4 Number of Students in Higher Education
|2. Undergraduate in Regular HEIs||7,971,991||32,852,948|
|3. Undergraduate in Adult HEIs||2,469,562||7,772,942|
|4. Web-based Undergraduate||2,722,497||8,464,464|
|5. Class run by non-government HEIs for students preparing for self-directed state-administered examinations||87,804||199,078|
|6. College-preparatory class||N/A||43,047|
|7. In-service training||19,390,811||N/A|
|8. Foreign students||101,884||273,792|
Section 1.5: Structure of Academic Year
There are two semesters in one academic year. Upper/Autumn semester starts in early September, and ends in late January or early February. Lower/Spring semester begins in February and ends in late June. Between semesters is a winter vacation which lasts between 20 and 30 days, or a summer vacation which lasts approximately two months. Some HEIs offer summer sessions.
Section 1.6: National Qualifications Framework (or Similar)
Short-cycle course education (2-3 years) enables students to grasp the basic theories and special knowledge which the course must offer and to acquire the basic skills and the preliminary ability of practical work in the fields of their specialized subjects.
Undergraduate education (4-5 years) enables students to grasp more systematically the basic theories and knowledge required by the branches of learning or specialized subjects offered, to grasp the basic skills methods and relevant knowledge necessitated by their specialized subjects, and to acquire the preliminary ability of practical work and research in the fields of their specialized subjects.
The graduate education for candidates working for MA (2-3 years) enables candidates to grasp firmly the basic theories in their branches of learning and grasp the systematic knowledge of their specialized subjects, to grasp the skills and methods and relevant knowledge required, and to acquire the ability of practical work and research in the fields of their specialized subjects. The graduate education for candidates working for Ph.D (3-4 years) enables candidates to grasp firmly the breadth of the basic theories and the systematic and profound knowledge of the specialized subjects and grasp the skills and methods required by their branches of learning, and to acquire the ability of creative research on their own and of practical work in the fields of their specific branches of learning.
Section 1.7: Learning Outcomes in Higher Education